Five Golden Rules of Investing

1. Always buy from motivated sellers
Instead of looking for a property you’ll like and then negotiating with the seller, a smarter strategy is to look for motivated sellers who will be flexible on the price and / or the terms of the sale, and then decide if you want to buy that particular property.

If they are prepared to sell at a discount for a quick sale, the amount of discount will vary depending on the motivation of the seller and the general market conditions.

In a rising market you may be happy with a 15% to 20% discount. In a falling market you would want a bigger discount of 25% to 40% to give you more of a safety buffer in case prices come down further.

Just to be clear here, this is not saying that you always need to get a discount off the sales price. Sometimes property is already a great buy at the full asking price because it may already have been lowered for a quick sale. This is where knowing the values in your local market is really important so that you can spot a good deal when you see it.

Many investors get fixated about buying below market value, which means they are likely to miss out on potentially profitable deals because they don’t think they should pay the full asking price. If it is a good deal, investors may sometimes pay the full asking price and more, especially if they can add value to the property. We also need to recognise that some sellers may not be able to offer you a discount because there is no equity in their property. However, if they are motivated, they may be more flexible on the terms of the sale, for example, when you actually pay for the property.

Price is not the only factor in negotiation. This means you may be able to use strategies such as ‘Exchange Delayed with a Completion’, or ‘Purchase Lease Option’. These strategies only really work if the seller is motivated.

2. Buy in an area with strong rental demand
This is a very important rule. As a property investor your aim should be to buy an investment which will not only pay for itself, but also make a cash profit (positive cash flow) each month. There are running costs associated with owning a property, but the basic concept is that the rent you receive from your tenants more than covers all of the costs. If you have no tenants, you have no income, which means you have to cover the costs yourself. Your investment then becomes a liability, rather than an asset.

You need to accept that as a landlord you may occasionally have void periods on your property, which means no tenants, and so you need to meet the costs. You can dramatically reduce potential void periods by only ever buying property in an area with strong rental demand. You want to ensure that if your current tenants decide to leave the property you can quickly and easily rent it to new tenants at the full market rent.

A general rule of thumb is to buy properties in areas with strong local employment and good transport links with local facilities and amenities. When you know how to do it, you can easily assess the true rental demand in any area by using the internet to find like comparisons, speaking to local letting agents, and even placing dummy adverts to test rental demand. If you are not sure about the rental demand in an area, then don’t buy the property to avoid longer than expected void periods, which will cost you money. Due diligence is very important before you make any investment decisions.

3. Buy for cash flow
As already mentioned in Rule No 2, your property should create a monthly positive cash flow for you, so that it is an asset rather than a liability. As prices shot up towards the end of the last property boom, it became increasingly difficult to find properties that stacked up to give a positive cash flow. Many investors were buying properties which would only just “wash their face”, where the rent just about covered the monthly costs. Even worse, in the hope that prices would keep going up, some investors were buying properties that had negative cash flow, whereby the rent was not enough to cover the monthly costs. This meant that the owners had to subsidise the property each month, not a good position to be in, especially if you have a lot of properties like this.

When the property market crash came in 2008, many investors, both amateurs and professionals, owned properties that were worth less than they had purchased them for and were costing money each month just to hold them. In this situation, if you can afford to hold the property, you just need to sit back and wait for the market to recover. But if you can’t afford to continue subsidising it, and you are forced to sell, then that’s one of the ways you could lose money in property. Fortunately, the good news is that, with the benefit of hindsight, you can learn from other people’s past mistakes, so that you don’t have to make the same mistakes yourself.

You should only ever buy property where each month there is a profit from the rental income you receive after paying all of the expenses, including mortgage payments, insurance, repairs and management fees. Positive cash flow is king. Although we expect property prices to rise in the long-term, if you buy your investments ‘as if prices will never go up again’, you will be forced to buy only properties which give you great cash flow now. Extra cash flow will help you to build up a safety buffer, and help you cover potential rises in interest rates in the future.

4. Invest for the long-term buy and hold
Some investors like to buy and sell property to make a profit. This is a good strategy (in a rising market), however, each time you sell a property you will crystallise your profit and you will never make any more money from that particular property. Whereas, if you buy and hold, you can make money from the rental profit each month, as well as long-term capital growth. This way you work once and get paid forever by that property. The real profit in property is in buying and holding for the long-term to benefit from significant capital growth. The key here is being able to afford to hold it and this is why a positive cash flow is so important, so that you don’t have to subsidise ownership of the property. If you plan to hold for the long-term and your property is rented out creating a positive cash flow, you needn’t be concerned by short-term fluctuations in price.

If you do sell a property investors may suggest you reinvest some of the proceeds into another property that will give you a better return. To conclude, many believe it is best to hold property for the long-term. That is how you can become very wealthy and pass wealth on to future generations.

5. Have a cash buffer
Often you meet investors who had to sell their properties because they could not afford to hold them. A problem investors sometimes hear about is of properties occasionally getting damaged or just enduring wear and tear, making them difficult to rent. The landlord may not have the spare cash to make the necessary repairs and improvements and so the property remains void, which ends up costing the owner even more money. This becomes a vicious circle whereby the landlord can’t afford to make the improvements because he has no rent coming in, and can’t get any tenants because he can’t afford to make the improvements. These landlords often become motivated sellers.

The way to avoid this potential problem is to make sure you always have a cash buffer set aside to cover unexpected expenses. In reality, you can get insurance to cover most of the potential issues, including a tenant not paying the rent. However, the more insurance policies you have, the higher your costs and so the less cash flow you will have each month. Investors may recommend you have a cash buffer in place, which you can use if need be. This could be cash in your bank, a clear credit card, or some cash in someone else’s bank that you have agreed you can borrow if necessary. The size of this buffer depends on your personal level of risk. A few thousand pounds per property might be a good idea. This will help you avoid becoming a motivated seller yourself.

An introduction to planning permission

If you are ever considering being a buy-to-let landlord it is likely you will envision at some point making changes to your property in order to enhance its value. Depending on whether you wish to alter, you may need to obtain planning permission. In fact, it would not be unreasonable to go as far as to say that knowing about planning permission is an essential part of any buy-to-let landlord.

In 1948 the right to carry out property development was nationalized. In other words, landowners’ right to build and alter buildings, or to use land or buildings for a different purpose, was taken away by the government. Since that date, anyone wishing to carry out development needs permission to do so.

Permission is given mainly by the local planning authority for the area, which in most cases is the district, borough or city council (collectively referred to as ‘district’ councils). In addition, local government was charged with preparing plans for their areas showing where various kinds of buildings could and could not be built. Thus, the modern comprehensive planning system was born. The system is now overseen by Department of Communities and Local Government in England; the Scottish Government; the Welsh Assembly Government and the Department of the Environment in Northern Ireland.

The planning system was introduced so that property development could be controlled in the public interest. Previously, buildings could be built anywhere, or they could be demolished, and land and buildings could be used for any purpose the owner chose. This was thought to be inefficient and sometimes had harmful consequences. The idea behind the planning system is that new buildings and uses are controlled to ensure:

that incompatible uses are not sited together;
the preservation of important buildings and areas;
the conservation of the countryside and natural environment;
the prevention of urban sprawl;
that the appearance and layout of new development is compatible with existing development;
that resources are not wasted;
that infrastructure can be provided efficiently;
that people’s enjoyment of their properties is protected;
highway safety;
co-ordinated provision of new housing and employment facilities.

However, the planning system is not coercive. It relies on landowners wanting to undertake development. An owner does not have to use land in a particular way just because it is allocated for that use or development. Similarly, even when permission is given, the owner is not compelled to act on it. The system is only concerned with what can be built. It does not deal with how it is built. Structural stability, health and safety, sanitation and so on are dealt with under separate legislation and regulations.

Fundamental to the planning system is planning policy. As well as allocating sites and areas for certain types of development, council development plans contain guidance and standards for buildings and uses, relating to matters such as design, layout, density, garden space, privacy, noise, highway safety, size and mix of buildings, parking and many other issues. This guidance, and standards, is known as planning policy and can be set out in a range of development plan documents. There is a preparation process that development plans must go through and public consultation and opportunities for public comment are built into the procedures.

In addition to local policies, the governments of the UK publish national planning policy documents. Inevitably, these are more broad-brush in nature. Their function is not only to guide decisions on individual development proposals but also to give direction to the development plans drawn up by local authorities. The government indicates what should be taken into account when preparing local plans and, in some areas, the thrust of what they should say. When seeking permission for development, planning law requires the body responsible for making the decision to do so in accordance with formally drawn up local planning policy, unless there are sound reasons for coming to a different conclusion. Therefore, planning policies are the prime consideration in whether planning permission will be given.

Permission is needed for development; consequently there is an application process for seeking that permission. Two types of planning application can be made. First, there are ‘full’ or ‘detailed’ applications. These show all aspects of the proposal and are specific about precisely what would be built, what alterations would be made or what use would be made of land or buildings. Second, there are outline applications. These are made to establish, in principle, whether a building can be built, leaving some or all details of the scheme to be determined subsequently. Outline applications can only be made for buildings not for changes of use, including conversions. The details of the building and site layout are called ‘reserved matters’, because they are reserved from the outline application. Another type of application is then made for the approval of reserved matters within the scope of the original outline permission. Once they have been approved, the outline and reserved matters together are the equivalent of a full planning permission.

Although planning permission is supposed to be obtained for development before it takes place, inevitably building work and changes of use happen without the necessary consent. In these circumstances, an application can be made for permission after the event. This is generally referred to as ‘retrospective’ planning permission.

There are various other applications which can be made after planning permission has been granted. Conditions are attached to permissions and there is a procedure for applying to remove or vary conditions. In certain circumstances, this type of application can be used to make changes to the design or layout of an approved scheme. There is a separate procedure for making very minor changes to a planning permission, called a non-material amendment. One condition attached to a planning permission is a time limit within which to begin the development permitted; this is usually three years for full planning permission (five years in Northern Ireland and Wales). Applications to extend the duration of planning permission are often referred to as ‘renewals’ although they are, technically, new applications.

Of course, not all planning applications are successful and the system includes an appeals process. Appeals are made to central government bodies: the Planning Inspectorate in England and Wales, and the Planning Appeals Commission in Northern Ireland.

The appeals system in Scotland is a little different. Appeals against decisions taken by council officers are decided by a group of elected councillors. Appeals against decisions taken by the council’s planning committee are made to the Scottish Government’s Directorate for Planning and Environmental Appeals.

Appeals can be made when a council refuses permission, fails to make a decision within set time periods, or grants planning permission subject to conditions which the applicant wishes to vary or remove.

Appeals provide the opportunity for the merits of a proposed development to be considered by an independent inspector (reporter in Scotland, commissioner in Northern Ireland), free of local politics. Appeal decisions, and the interpretations they contain, are supposed to be taken into account by councils when deciding planning applications. Thus the appeals system is intended to keep a check on councils and to provide some consistency in decisions between councils.

Living room and kitchen design for aspiring landlords

Living rooms have changed so much over the last few generations. In the good old days, your living room might have been known as a sitting room, a drawing room, a front room or a parlour. The living room was often the space in which you could grandly declare your style, status and taste, because it was here that visitors would be invited when they came to your home. In many families, the living room was a child-free zone, kept for ‘best’ to impress! Times have undoubtedly changed, and not that many houses have space for such luxury – spreading out to fill every room in the house instead! In fact, the separate ‘formal’ drawing room often feels like a fairly boring and redundant space – rarely used and usually not very comfortable.

Here in the 21st century, we are much more adventurous with our use of space, and it’s increasingly common to combine the kitchen-dining area, making the kitchen very much the central hub of the home. Many kitchen-diners have their own TV screens, and most homes have a number of TVs scattered throughout. For this reason, the ‘new’ living room isn’t necessarily a place for sitting down to watch TV. In fact, in my home we watch more TV in the kitchen than in any other room. So maybe it’s time that we rethink the way we use our living spaces. Sure, get a TV in there for times when you really want to flop and chill out; however, it makes sense to think about giving your living room a new role.

Today’s living rooms can provide space for reading, listening to music, having a relaxed chat and gathering around the fire. Where kitchens can often feel like ‘harder’spaces, with functional flooring and finishes, the living room wants to be a place where you can curl up and get cosy. It’s important that any living room feels relaxing and comfortable. It’s undoubtedly a space where you can hang out with your kids, but there is also an opportunity here to make this a space that is a little more grown-up. The TV will always be the inevitable focus of any living space (or, indeed, any room in which it is situated), but by planning a room properly there are ways to give equal priority to a beautiful, real fire. Real fires have such a powerful psychological appeal, and represent one of the very best ways to truly relax.

We live in an age in which we all love a greater sense of space in our homes. Most of us don’t want to live in tiny, box-like rooms, all with a similar scale, size and proportion. Instead, we like variety in our homes, diverse spaces with plenty of light and a great flow of air. We like rooms to be sized to match our requirements; in other words, we need them to be big enough to host our lifestyles, and smaller when we want to be cosy. The lighting and finishes are then chosen to create an atmosphere appropriate to those rooms.

If one thing’s for sure, kitchens are the absolute heart of the home. They aren’t just places for cooking, but a hub for socialising with family, friends and relatives. The 21st-century family kitchen is a virtual hive of activity and, for me, it is without a doubt the most important room in the house. Dining rooms are, however, something completely different. There really has been a change in our view of these spaces, particularly in smaller homes. Sure, if you have a grand house with loads of space, then a formal dining room is a fantastic space for those special occasions – huge dinner parties, or family gatherings. However, if you need more space in your house, and need it in rooms that might sit alongside your dining room, then this is the first room that needs to go.

Another reason why we are seeing the death of the formal dining room boils down to the fact that younger families simply don’t use formal dining spaces in the same way that previous generations did. The modern family is much more relaxed and far less stuffy. Times are changing and we don’t seem to mind the idea of entertaining in what is effectively kitchen space.

Your kitchen has to be ruthlessly functional, highly durable, and intelligently planned to suit the exact needs of your family. If it’s not, then you have not only wasted a large proportion of your refurbishment budget (even the most affordable kitchens still cost money), but it will drive you mad every time you use it. Cooking for you and your family should be a pleasurable and rewarding experience, and not a source of frustration.

In the early 1950s, researchers in the US developed the idea of the ‘work triangle’. This is an ergonomic concept derived from research to improve industrial efficiency, which was then applied to the domestic kitchen. Whether you are planning your own kitchen, or enlisting the help of a professional, you can use the ‘work triangle’ method to check the efficiency of your design. The three points of the triangle correspond to the three main kitchen activity zones. There is the wet zone (the sink), the cold zone (the fridge) and the hot zone (the cooker). Their position and relationship to each other is critical to achieving an efficient and comfortable kitchen design.

The recommended overall distance (the total length of the three sides) is 6 metres (20 feet), with no two points being less than 90 centimetres (35 inches) apart. Sound complicated? It’s not really. Read on! If the total is less than 4 metres (12 feet), then your appliances will be too close for comfort. If it’s greater than 8.5 metres (26 feet), then your appliances will be too far apart and you’ll waste time and effort trekking between them. A good way to burn off the calories that you are about to put on, but not an efficient kitchen design! Try to assess the traffic flow across the triangle, too. If you have a large kitchen, people walking through the space may not be a problem, but in small rooms it can reduce efficiency even further.

Design choices affect your rental yield

Some, if not most, people look to property as a way of making money. The attraction with being a landlord is that it offers you lifestyle options, a stream of income that once set up, provides you with income so you can get out and make the most of life. Is it unfair to say there is a secret landlord inside most of us? If you are able to let out a property, making the right design choices may allow you to reap the most income possible, because it gives a good feel to a tenant who would then be willing to pay a high rent.

Every single decision you make – from the smallest design detail to the selection of finishes and furniture, and the overall arrangement or layout of a room – has an impact on the way that your entire home feels. Together, these decisions can have a profound effect on the way you live your life, and the dynamic you create within it.

Building a conservatory or an extension on your home can add massive value. Not only can it transform the quality of the architecture in your ground-floor spaces, but the additional space will also increase the overall floor area of your house, which will automatically increase its value when the estate agent whips round with his tape measure. Best of all, if your new spaces are well designed, you’ll certainly add that ‘wow’ factor. In fact, extensions are a magical way to flood your house with light, create space where you didn’t even know you had it, and open up the rooms in your home to make them work the way you want them to.

The first question that you have to ask yourself is what kind of extension you want and why? Before even considering your options, you need to analyse your existing house plans very carefully to fully understand the impact your extension will have on the design of your existing house. You also have to be sure that whatever you build completely fits your needs. The most common form of extension on a property is a ground-floor rear extension; the most popular form of extension is a rear, ground-floor addition. Both of these can have a substantial and dramatic effect on the way that the ground-floor spaces work.

In many cases, these types of extensions are used to expand the kitchen-dining area, which has pretty much become the heart of the typical British family home. Creating additional space where the average family needs, wants and uses it most means that you’ll not just be making your home more productive in terms of space, but you’ll be in a fantastic position if and when you do come to sell.

Standard conservatories bought directly from a manufacturer can be even more affordable, but it’s worth being wary of this approach. If selected in the wrong style, a standard, off-the-shelf design can conflict with the architecture of the existing house. This doesn’t have anything to do with whether the extension is modern or traditional – far from it. Most people don’t have a preference for either style, as long as the design of the extension is good – and appropriate for your house. Often, however, I find that the standardised conservatories in mock Georgian, Tudor or Victorian styles don’t really work well when added to the back of a house from a different period. A well-designed and well-built extension will always be a good preference over a low-budget PVC conservatory that won’t necessarily enhance the standard of your home. The truth is that agents sometimes wonder why people do go for fully glazed conservatories with glass roofs, which they then cover completely with blinds because they are worried about their privacy! This high level of glazing is not necessarily very comfortable, either! In the winter months you can end up with a freezing-cold extension and, in the summer, the equivalent of an indoor greenhouse. A more considered design, which overcomes the issues of privacy, heat loss and solar gain , is by far the best way forward. Planned correctly, you’ll still be able to achieve fantastic views and access to your back garden.

We live in an age in which we all love a greater sense of space in our homes. Most of us don’t want to live in tiny, box-like rooms, all with a similar scale, size and proportion. Instead, we like variety in our homes, diverse spaces with plenty of light and a great flow of air. We like rooms to be sized to match our requirements; in other words, we need them to be big enough to host our lifestyles, and smaller when we want to be cosy. The lighting and finishes are then chosen to create an atmosphere appropriate to those rooms.

When it comes to bedrooms, they must be beautifully calm and comfortable spaces, for adults and children alike. The ideal bedroom should be cosy and serene, allowing your mind to be cleared of the pressures of the day when you retire to bed. When you consider the fact that we do, on average, spend nearly a third of our lives sleeping, the quality of our beds and the rooms they sit in become that much more important. The space should be beautiful; the bed should be a haven.

It makes no difference if you are a traditionalist, enjoying an over-the-top bedroom and indulging in Louise XIV-style splendour, or an avid minimalist, with a room stripped bare of any ornament, decoration or distraction. In both cases, comfort and cosiness should be the order of the day, and a fundamental part of your design brief. This means that the selection of your finishes and furnishings is actually the most important choice you will have to make in your bedroom. However, to create a fully successful bedroom, all of the principles of good design need to work together.

Bedrooms need to serve a dual purpose – lulling you to sleep and allowing you to languish in bed for those all-too-infrequent lie-ins, but also stimulating you adequately to give you the get-up-and-go you need to get out of bed in the morning. It’s also an extremely personal room, where we undress, dream, mull over the day that has passed and plan the day ahead, and also spend intimate time with our loved ones. We take to our beds when we are ill, and retreat to our bedrooms when we want a thorough rest. It’s not surprising, therefore, that creating the perfect bedroom is a challenge on a major scale.

Think carefully about your needs before working on the design brief for your new bedroom. A bedroom should be a sanctuary, but a functional one at that. Take your time to work out exactly what will work to create the optimum environment.

Reasons for investing in properties

A lot of mediation cases result from disputes between landlords who want to maximise their bottom dollar and spend as little as possible, and tenants who feel they are being pushed to do the landlord’s job of upkeeping properties because the landlords are not responsive enough. What makes someone want to invest in property in the first place if they are not prepared to invest time and money into maintaining it?

Cash Flow: Whether you buy with all cash or use today’s favorable financing with a low mortgage payment, positive monthly cash flow occurs when the monthly rent is greater than the monthly expense. This gives you a monthly income from your property investment.

Appreciation: Appreciation is the increase in the property’s value, which generally occurs over time and can also be increased by an investor who adds value to the property through repairs and/or enhancements. This is a great way to create equity in the property.

Depreciation: Even with an increase in the property’s value, the government allows owners a tax deduction on their property over its life span. This annual deduction is called depreciation which you can start taking when you have owned the property for at least one year. By taking advantage of depreciation, the cash flow you receive is protected so that you receive some or all of it tax free. If you are an investor with an income from another source such as a regular job, it can also protect all or some of that income from state and/or federal income taxes. Talk to an accountant to completely understand the full benefits of depreciation.

Tax Benefits: In addition to depreciation, an investor can usually claim the interest portion of his monthly mortgage payment as a tax deduction.

Leverage: Leverage is a very powerful reason for investing in property. If an investor uses 100% cash to acquire a house worth $100,000, and the house increases in value by $5,000 in one year, then the investor makes a return of 5% (assuming no other costs in this case). However, if the investor obtains 80% financing, only $20,000 cash would be required at the closing table, and a bank or other lender would loan the remaining $80,000 to acquire the property. Assuming the same $5,000 increase in value, the investor’s cash contribution of $20,000 would yield a 25% return on investment ($5,000 increase in value divided by the $20,000 investment) in the same one year period of time.

Using the above example, if the investor is able to net even a conservative cash flow of $200 per month, this will result in an additional $2,400 per year added to the increased appreciation. The return for the year would now be $7,400 ($5,000 appreciation plus $2,400 cash flow) and the return on investment would now be 37% ($7,400 divided by $20,000). Even if the property value remained stable with no appreciation, there would still be a positive return of the $2,400 in cash flow with a return on investment of 12%.

Considering these benefits in addition to the low interest rates for financing, you can see how easy it is to accumulate wealth and become a successful investor.

Other Reasons Why People Invest in property
Now let’s look at other reasons why people invest in property. First, let me ask you a very simple, yet provocative question: Why would you invest in property? Understanding the answer or answers to this question will help you along your investment career. Following are the most common answers I have heard during the course of my property career:

Freedom: Frankly, this is why most people start investing in property. They get star struck with the idea of riches that would give them the freedom to stop working for someone else. They may have a great job that they absolutely love that pays the bills, but they still want to achieve long-term freedom. They can see that by buying and holding cash flow properties over time (and sacrificing and delaying gratification), in five, ten or twenty years, they can have a pile of monthly cash flow and have gained the freedom they desire.

Control: Some investors I speak with want property in order to gain some degree of control over their financial lives because, let’s face it; we have zero control in financial investments outside of property investing. If you invest in the stock market or money market funds, you have no control over the return you will make. With property, there are things that you can do to control your return on investment as shown above.

Alternatives: Some investors will admit that property is nothing more than a portion of their overall investment portfolio. Perhaps they have divided their portfolio to include mutual funds, stocks, property, etc. Or they may be looking to achieve higher returns from their cash through active management.

Job Escape: A few investors look at property investing as a career, or a chance to own their own company. Others may look at property as a means to eventually replace the job or career they currently hate. Creating Value or Thrill of the Hunt: Many investors love the thrill of the hunt, chasing down a deal or cashing in on their last remodel. They pursue that addictive feeling and are always looking for the next rush or opportunity to turn an ugly duckling into a beautiful swan.

Options: After many years of property investing, I have come to realize that in the end people love investing in property because it has given them so many more options. They have the options to keep working their current job, to buy property as a full time career, to have the time and money to travel, etc. The more they invest, the more option doors are opened.

The Real Reason to Invest in property
People fall hard for the sexy pitch of earning freedom. Frankly, freedom is good but I think what people really want is options. That is why they keep working so hard to find the next deal, to find the next investor, and to keep building their growing portfolio. Some might think freedom and options are the same things. But freedom is more sustained while options are more temporary. But to me, freedom means that a person can stop doing something while options mean a person can do other things. I can tell you firsthand that having options is better than having freedom. I would say you get freedom first and then you build or acquire options.

Factors involved in residential property valuation

The residential market is imperfect. There is no central market place as a result buyers and sellers are relatively uninformed and even their professional advisors, valuers and agents, only have a limited knowledge of what is available for sale and of what is happening in the market.

Every house, flat, bungalow or other unit of residential accommodation is unique in some respect. Even a pair of semidetached houses differ as between right-hand and left-hand units.

This makes the task of valuation much more difficult than in those markets where there are standard units or products such as stocks, shares, gold, apples and cars. It is further complicated by the fact that there is no acceptable unit of comparison.

Residential property can occasionally be compared on the basis of a price per m2 (or sq ft) of floor space, but issues such as the number of bedrooms, reception rooms, car spaces, circulation space, views and the like can all vary between properties of precisely the same floor area, thus making the total unit of accommodation the only acceptable unit of comparison.

In the past the market had seasonal fluctuations, with greater activity and steadier, possibly rising prices, in spring and early summer, a quiet period in August followed by a mini-spur in September. These seasonal movements are less pronounced today but can still be detected. They can be different in different parts of the country and significantly different between London and popular holiday areas such as the Lake District. They can be affected by significant changes in market forces such as a change in mortgage interest rates.

In addition to seasonal movements, there are cycles of under-supply and over-supply and other movements of a migratory nature such as the desire to balance proximity to work with proximity to the country, and leisure activities with travel time and cost.

In most markets increases in effective demand against a fixed supply will lead to an upward movement in price. The upward movement in price encourages suppliers to produce more and for more suppliers to enter that market. In the residential market the response to such a shift in demand is slow.

It is argued that planning controls impede the supply of land and hence the supply of new houses coming on to the market. Even without such controls there would be a delay caused by the inability of the house-building industry to raise productivity in the short run. It is difficult for the market to respond precisely to match an increase in demand in an area because land becomes available in sizeable chunks and house-builders tend to be market followers, not market creators. The result is that an increase in demand in an area may in time be followed by an over supply.

The valuer’s task is to interpret the state of the market in an area at a point in time. Currently the residential market in the UK is experiencing a period of continuing price growth which is seen to be a reflection of: people living longer, greater single occupation of property, migratory growth in population and increased demand by individuals and investment companies to acquire property on a ‘buy to let basis’. The residential sector has been identified by many, at least in the short term, as a safe place for capital.

Over a number of years changes in consumer preferences occur which can be incorporated in new home design but are more difficult to incorporate in the existing housing stock. These style changes can shift the demand and hence value patterns of an area and must be monitored. The upper end of the market can be particularly vulnerable to these changes of fashion.

Residential property has a fixed location and can only be enjoyed at that location. The enjoyment of a property will depend upon general environmental factors and specific local factors. In the case of owner-occupation, the market reflects the relationship between employment opportunities, communications, general facilities of an area and the environmental factors. Growth in economic activity, more jobs and better pay, tends to cause a rise in values because of the relatively fixed level of supply.

Analysis of the economic opportunities of an area is essential if house buyers are to make sound house purchase decisions. Current concerns of global warming may begin to affect values in areas identified as liable to increased flood risk, coastal areas at risk and greater concerns by discerning buyers for environmentally sound energy efficient homes.

Total home demand has to be translated into effective demand. Effective demand is a function of the national economy and gross national product. The valuer needs to know and to consider what is happening to base indicators such as the level of unemployment, the way employment is changing, current wage levels, and the propensity of the population to save and to invest in their own homes.

The reduction in employment during the early 1990s caused by cutbacks and closures led in some areas to reductions in value both in real terms and in money terms. Money in bricks and mortar will not always be safe.

The housing market and levels of home ownership are closely connected with the availability of credit. Effective desire can only be translated to effective demand through the availability of credit, largely in the form of funds for mortgage loans offered by the building societies, the banks and the insurance companies. Availability of, and the cost of, finance are socioeconomic elements in the market-place, as are the loan terms of such organisations. Lenders are very competitive but changes in lending policy can increase demand. Thus increases in income multipliers or joint income multipliers can increase the number of potential buyers or their potential price range.

Credit for house purchase offered by banks and building societies is dependent upon two factors: the security of the property offered against the loan, and the financial status of the borrower. Very simply, the more one earns the more one can borrow. Thus in a housing market where demand exceeds supply higher salaries and wages will provide purchasers with greater purchasing power: this balanced against the fixed supply leads to higher property prices through competition between buyers. The cost of buying, the interest payable on house purchase loans (mortgages), is outside the control of the banks and building societies in that to maintain a flow of savings to sustain a flow of loans they have to compete in the money market. As a result, mortgage interest rates can rise and fall with the world’s changing view of the British economy and with changes in the Bank of England’s base rate. Many mortgage interest rates are linked formally or informally to base rate. A rise in base rate will generally give rise to an increase in mortgage interest rates and a fall to a fall in interest rates.

The government can influence the economy, finance and hence the marketplace. Governments set minimum standards for new homes, through planning control, building, energy and health regulations. These standards affect costs, which influence developers’ attitudes as to feasibility and influence the volume of new houses in the market-place. EU regulations may also influence market forces. The requirement for a statement as to the energy rating of a property may impact on the value of low rated properties in the same way as energy ratings have led to the disappearance of most non A rated electrical goods.

The government can and has influenced the market in other ways, such as by encouraging public sector tenants to purchase their homes, by imposing rent control and protection on the private rented sector, and by changes in taxation.

The general level of values depends upon the general and area-specific levels of economic activity, community income and wealth; the existing quality and quantity of residential property in an area; the rate of addition to that stock; the point at which a local market happens to be in a particular cycle, and the underlying confidence that people within and outside a particular area have in the economic future and prosperity of that area.

The fixed location of property means that the nature of the neighbourhood and the immediate surrounding properties are crucial factors in terms of buyers’ attitudes and hence in determining a value for a property within the level of values for that area.

A number of factors affect the attitude of buyers. These factors in turn determine whether an area at a point in time is considered to be desirable with rising values, acceptable with stable values, or depressed with falling values. A similar house in each such area could have very different values.

People need property, in this context people need somewhere to live. The size and composition of the population is an indication of the number and possible size of houses required by that population. But the residential market is a local market so it is important to consider the population within a definable area and to know its composition and the extent to which it is changing. Is it an ageing population, is it growing or declining naturally and/ or by migration into or away from the area? Demand characteristics can change both across the country and within local areas. Over recent years developers have become niche operators, seeking to satisfy current demand.

Market analysis identifies the need for, say, starter homes, single-person homes, family homes, luxury homes, retirement homes, student villages. Market analysis will also identify preferences in terms of type of accommodation, design, materials, construction, internal layout and facilities.

The socio-economic composition of a neighbourhood has a major impact on values. A socially deprived or underprivileged area will display that fact in the deterioration of the urban fabric, including the deterioration in physical condition of homes. Deprived means depressed, which signifies low incomes, multiple occupations and low values.

In time, however, a combination of other factors, including the architectural and historic nature of an area, may draw in a wealthier class who will gentrify or reinstate the properties to their original condition and turn such an area into a high value area. Such movements are observable but not always predictable.

In a similar way areas historically noted for housing the wealthier owner-occupier may go into decline as large units or large plots become a financial burden and are sold for conversion and multiple letting. In time the same area may revert back to single family ownership or be substantially redeveloped for low-cost housing or high-value housing, depending upon the level and nature of demand at a point in time when redevelopment is seen as the proper solution for a declining neighbourhood.

The level of vandalism and crime are regrettably indicative of an area’s undesirability. Such changes are partly attitudinal and, like a disease, can spread very rapidly If a community senses that no one cares about an area, in particular the authorities, then the residents cease to care. The result is decline, which is immediately reflected in falling property values.

Active residents’ associations and neighbourhood watch committees show concern by the community for their neighbourhood which can stimulate pride in an area and lead to rising values. The market and market values are obvious reflections of social desirability.

The extremes of social deprivation and social well-being coincide with the extremes of values to be found within a defined geographic area. The residential valuer must be alert to the potential for change and be aware that within broadly defined residential groupings there will be pockets of properties which appear to defy logic but nevertheless maintain high values in areas of low values or areas of low values in an area dominated by high values.

Once a change in an area is signaled the value movement tends to be fairly fast as the new socio-economic group moves in to replace the higher or lower socio-economic group.

These social features are closely related to the income profile of the population and the underlying economic activity of that section of the population that predominates in a given residential area. This is further reflected in market activity. Properties in desirable areas change hands quickly, with a minimum of properties remaining vacant. Properties in declining areas tend to remain on the market for longer periods, tend to become vacant and remain vacant, deteriorate, shift to multiple occupation, and may finally be condemned.

Local politics are a reflection of and a response to these changing social and economic forces. The future of a neighbourhood can be affected by the strength of the community in political terms. Strong representation can produce improvements to schools, health and community services and dictate the attitude of the authorities to that area. Small changes on their own have little impact, but in combination can strengthen a neighbourhood. Thus the attention of the authorities to street cleaning, refuse collection, repair and maintenance of roads and footpaths, street furniture, local schools etc will all become part of the environmental picture which impacts upon buyers’ attitudes and hence on their willingness to commit themselves to a purchase at a particular price.

Physical and environmental factors help to define the neighbourhood. Those areas which are, in physical terms, well maintained and environmentally most attractive are those which are likely to become socially most desirable and hence in time occupied by the economically stronger. This tends to create a community with political strength which becomes protective and perpetuates the status of the area.

Natural and man-made features may provide the boundaries to identifiable residential areas. In some cases there may be a spill-over effect, with values declining gradually from high value areas to low-value areas. In other locations there can be pronounced changes in value either side of a building or road. Roads, particularly motorways and main commuter routes, railways, rivers, lakes, village greens, sports fields, parks may all act as boundaries.

Proximity to one or another may give rise to higher or lower relative values depending upon the desirability or otherwise of being close to such a feature. There are rarely any hard and fast rules about the behavioural attitude of the residential property market. This is because it is often the combination of many factors that creates good or bad in the eyes of the buyer. Some river locations are highly sought after, others far less so given the current increased awareness of flood risk.

Motorways and railways may act as boundaries but the combination of ease of access, visual intrusion and noise, together with other environmental factors, will determine whether they add to, or take away from value.

Soil, subsoil, natural drainage, probability of flooding, micro-climate, topography and aspect are all physical factors which historically may have determined the desirability of building in an area and may still today have an impact on values. Proximity to the right schools, shops, libraries, golf courses, country club, leisure facilities, may add to value.

But on the other hand, proximity to anything likely to cause a nuisance such as factories, sewage-works, football grounds, bingo halls, discotheques or anything that might give rise to rowdyism and general misbehaviour will tend to depress values.

Communications to the rest of the area, surrounding public open space, motorway linkages and places of employment are all very important location factors. So too, is the existing quality of development, road patterns and standard of property maintenance in determining the good, the bad and the indifferent areas of a defined residential market. Nor would it be a complete story without mentioning the importance of pressure groups in the form of conservationists, environmentalists, ecologists and politicians.

All of these have an impact on the market for residential property. Thus at a given point in time these various forces will have combined together to create a particular level and pattern of values in an area. A change in one or more of any of the forces or components mentioned will alter the supply of, or the demand for, all residential property; or for a sector of the market or just for one specific property; the result being an increase in supply or a decrease in demand or a decrease in supply or an increase in demand and a corresponding change in prices and hence in values. It would be rare indeed for only one force to be moving, so interpretation of cause and effect can be very complex. The general economic climate together with the quality of different residential areas creates a pattern of values for a defined market. Within that market the valuer must now consider the site-specific qualities of a house and its physical condition in order to assess its market value.

Increasing numbers of buy to lets by cash buyers

According to Countrywide, nearly two thirds of the properties purchased by landlords were made using cash buyers. This is in contrast to the other third, which were completed using arranged mortgages. The value of properties purchased for the purpose of buy to lets totalled £31.5 billion, and of these, those made using cash payments accounted for a staggering£21.0 billion.

What can we glean from these financial statistics? The first we can deduce from the smaller percentage share is that some landlords are leveraging their existing properties in order to expand their portfolios. The one third of properties purchased are to have been based on buy to let mortgages, where perhaps an existing mortgaged property is remortgaged to release equity that goes towards a second property intended for lease. It reflects the thinking that buy to let is increasingly seen as a better investment than traditional bank investments. And while buyers are aware that a fall in house prices may result again in the future, they seem to be banking on the annual percentage gain to negate that loss.

Slightly more worryingly is the fact that two thirds of purchases were made outright with cash buyers. This highlights the fact that landlords are increasingly getting richer through the housing market, increasing their financial wealth considerably enough to afford such purchases in cash. And it points towards a worrying trend where those who have capital find it easier to accumulate even more capital, while thousands of young buyers are increasingly priced out, and have to resort to one of the following options:

Commuting to work in an area where salaries are higher and living in an area where the house prices are lower; this commute length is likely to increase as the property prices and rents increase;

Paying high rental rates and not being able to save for a deposit towards a house until significantly later in life, or not at all;

Having to make do with a lower standard of rental housing, to be able to afford to live in a particular area;

The figure of two thirds of landlord purchases by cash surpassed the three in five figure in 2011. In 2007, this figure was only two in five. In other words, the proportion of landlords buying in cash has increased by 26% in ten years, from 40% in 2007.

A favourable location for outright buy to lets is in the North of England and Scotland. While that may be good news for home owners, in that it drives house prices up as well as rentals, tellingly, the majority of purchases made are not made by people within the area, but by landlords outside of it. And this cannot be good news for the people who live in these regions. The ideal scenario for most people is to work in an area where salaries are higher, to have an income that outstrips living costs such as rentals or mortgages. But with landlords buying in Northern England and Scotland, turning it into an investment hotspot, the people in the area are trapped in a cycle of comparatively lower salaries and high prices.

Nearly four out of every five homes in the North East of England were bought by outright cash buyers, an astounding figure.

The trend was however reversed in the capital. It can be surmised that property prices in London were too high for many outright cash purchases. Landlords buying in London were the most likely to use a mortgage and London was the only region where statistically, two out of five purchases were cash-backed, well under the national average. Of course, this suggests that in some areas the proportion of outright cash buyers was even higher.

What inferences can we draw from the data? The first is that investment properties are on the rise. For estate agents, a registration with The Ombudsman Property Service is a sign that you work within a framework of established rules and regulations, which may be the distinguishing factor in determining if landlords choose to entrust their properties to you to manage or not.

Young professionals seeking to rent a property should choose one managed by a landlord or agent signed up to The Ombudsman Property Service. This means they are obliged to work to professional standards. You may get the offer of a cheaper rental property from a private landlord, on fairly informal terms, but accepting this may mean you have no means of redress when disputes arise.

The news that rental costs are increasing are not good. What can young professionals do in order to get on the property ladder? No one wants to be committed to a lifetime of renting, if they could help it, because while the ability to move from place to place and lead a bohemian lifestyle may seem idyllic in your twenties, having no roof over your head when you’re in your sixties is hardly a thrilling nomadic existence. And when you can see it coming from the vantage point of your forties and fifties, these thoughts will continually prey on your mind.

A recent report suggested young professionals could give up certain luxuries in order to accumulate enough capital to form a substantial deposit. The deposit for a London property is approaching £80,000 or £90,000. Taking the average annual salary of £26,000, minus rent, the average person would be in their forties by the time they got a foothold on the ladder. The report suggests that a foothold might be more quickly established if nights out, takeaway sandwiches and coffees were forgone, among other expensive luxuries like cigarettes. But it would be difficult to live a life that seems devoid of any entertainment, even though it may be a sacrifice the first time buyer may have to make.

The difficulty with reconciling what one wants from life with what one can afford is one of the difficulties we all have to overcome. Young people have aspirations of how they would like their lives to turn out, and aspirations of lifestyle that they have to manage. But perhaps the notion of doing without luxuries for a few years is a step too far, and those that have their eyes on the gulf between house prices and salaries have decided they cannot bridge the gap, or commit to closing the gap, and have decided to enjoy life and all its luxuries while they can.

The divergence between salaries and house prices has also inadvertently fuelled another trend. This trend is the currency of hope. Young professionals, unfortunately, are increasingly seeking an outlying factor to help them expand their savings enough to meet their dream property. An outlier is an event that lies outside traditional empirical data, what might call a one-off that defies evidence. An example of an outlier might be a lottery windfall. There is no past evidence that points towards a future win, but when it happens suddenly a sudden restructuring of the status quo results. Another outlier is perhaps an inheritance; a sudden unexpected sum of money would help make up the gap for a deposit. First time buyers are relying also on parental help. But there is also an increasing number of young professionals who are turning towards reality television, singing competitions and all kinds of sudden fame in the hope that it would suddenly lift them out of the existing situation, and provide some additional financial boost into their dream one.

Are others relying on property as their hope?

Valuing a residential property

The first aspects of a property to be considered by the layman are usually the location, the appearance and the physical condition. Where it is, what it looks like, its accommodation, services and condition are all important factors when considering value, but for the valuer the most important initial considerations are legal. This is because it is the legal title to property with all its encumbrances that is bought and sold. ‘Every man’s home is his castle’summarises most people’s aspirations for home ownership, to own something which is theirs and which is defensible against all-comers. In practice, the main line of defence is title; if the title is in any way limited, then solid walls may not prove to be the best defence.

In England and Wales the titles to be valued will either be freehold or leasehold, but it is also possible to own no more than an interest for life in a particular parcel of land.

The legal term for a freehold interest is fee simple absolute in possession. This just means that the whole estate, or any part of the estate can be transferred by the freeholder at any time, either during the owner’s lifetime or on their death by will or under the rules of intestacy.

A freeholder has the right to occupy and use the land, create lesser interests out of it such as long leases, periodic tenancies and life interests. In theory the Crown owns all of the land so a freehold interest is the closest that a person can come to absolute ownership of land. This is illustrated by the fact that if a freeholder dies without making a will and without any living relatives to inherit the land, then the title will revert to the Crown.

Although the freeholder has in theory absolute rights over the land, this ownership is secondary to other common law and statutory rights.

Civil and military aircraft can enter the airspace over a land, subject to limitations.

All gold, silver and coal belongs to the Crown who grant licences for the excavation of such minerals. Items of historic interest that are found on land may also belong to the Crown, but compensation can be paid to the owner of the land on which the items are discovered.

Ponds and lakes that fall within the boundary can be owned, but control and use of larger water bodies is strictly regulated. Ownership of river frontages may or may not include fishing rights and the riparian rights of others must be respected. Two other title restrictions require special mention.

First, on transfer of title it is possible for an owner to impose on a purchaser specific restrictions known as restrictive covenants. From a valuation viewpoint the most important are those covenants that restrict the use: development may be restricted to a specific number of houses, occupation restricted to family occupation, use may be restricted to public open space, and there may be restrictions on parking of caravans. These restrictions may remain enforceable for many years, but the right to enforce may be lost if the person enjoying the benefit of that covenant has permitted breaches to occur.

In other cases it may be necessary to apply to the Lands Tribunal under the Law of Property Act 1925 for the restrictions to be modified or discharged. Clearly such restrictions may hold values up where they help to maintain an environment, but they may also depress values where they prevent the land being used to its highest and best use in today’s market. Thus land suitable for building 10 houses may be restricted to one house by a covenant created in the 19th century.

Second, it was possible for a freehold title to be made subject to a rent charge. This entitled a party with no legal interest in the land to receive an annual payment. The Rent Charges Act 1977 prohibits the creation of new rent charges and contains provisions for the gradual extinguishment or voluntary redemption of such charges as currently exist (see Appendix IA). Rent charges will cease to exist from July 2037.

A freeholder is subject to the general laws of the land when it comes to determining what he can do with his land. There aver various acts that determine use of the land, such as the Town and Country Planning Acts, Environmental Protection Acts and the Building Regulations.

The police may also override the freeholder’s legal position to enter the property to enforce the law.

Freehold property also includes improvements to the land such as buildings and those things so attached to the land that they are held to be fixtures and so part of the land. The distinction between personal property that is movable and personal property which has been so attached to the land as to become a fixture is often very fine and has given rise to a branch of law known as the law of fixtures. In the residential market it has become the custom for questionable items to be listed as being included or excluded from the sale. The valuer will take the obvious fixtures into account in a valuation as they may add to the value of the property. Clearly an item such as a central heating boiler is a fixture, but it is less certain whether a built-in hob and oven in a kitchen will be classed as a fixture. When in doubt the valuer should make it clear in a valuation report which items have been included in the valuation of the property.

Until the passing of the Leasehold Reform Act in 1967 it was quite common practice for residential property to be sold on a leasehold basis and in the case of blocks of flats, house conversions, sheltered housing or whenever property management may be a major issue it is still common practice to sell on a leasehold basis with a share in a specifically created management company which owns the freehold.

In September 2004 a new form of land tenure was introduced. It is called commonhold and it is a way of owning freehold land. It is intended to be an alternative to the leasehold system for multi-owned, interdependent properties with common parts. Its most obvious application is to blocks of flats and apartments, but it could be used for developments of houses or mixed use buildings where there are communal areas. A commonhold association must be formed as a private company limited by guarantee. This owns the common parts and all individual unit owners are members of the association and so they can control those common parts. The individual unit owners will own the freehold of their unit.

A leasehold estate in property will be for a definite term. This is an important value factor.

Traditionally such leases in residential property have been for terms of 99 years or 999 years. But in addition to the covenant to pay rent there may be covenants to repair, insure, pay local taxes, to clean, to maintain grounds and gardens or to meet some or all such costs through a service charge levied by the landlord. In most instances these covenants impose a contractual requirement on the leaseholder to undertake everything that one would expect from a reasonable freehold owner of residential property. However, a freeholder has a choice of whether or not to paint the property, to clean the windows and to maintain the garden; the leaseholder will not necessarily have that choice. Further, the leaseholder may be specifically restricted in terms of the use and enjoyment of the property. There may be covenants about music after 11.30 pm, about hanging out clothes to dry, about erecting TV and radio aerials and satellite dishes and a requirement to obtain the freeholder’s consent for all alterations and for any sale (assignment) or further sub-leasing of the property. A licence fee may have to be paid to the freeholder whenever the freeholder’s consent is required under the terms of the lease.

A valuer when instructed to prepare a valuation must be satisfied by inspection and enquiry as to the nature of the title to be valued and any restrictions or other encumbrances that attach to the title. However, because of the time-limits imposed upon the valuer by many clients, valuations are often prepared on the basis of an unencumbered freehold or on the basis of minimum information relating to a lease. A valuer is valuing on the basis of information supplied and will naturally reserve the right to review that valuation if that information is subsequently found to be incorrect. Nevertheless valuers are trained to observe and should therefore account for the obvious, such as signposted public footpaths, unmade and un-adopted roads, shared driveways and shared areas in blocks of flats.

Buying to let? Some issues you may wish to consider

Property is great whether you’re looking for a steady supplement to your retirement income or a secure financial future. Most buy-to-let landlords want to become financially independent, and property is a proven investment strategy for achieving that goal. But after you sign your name on the dotted line and officially enter the world of owning rental property, you face some tough decisions. One of the very first concerns is who will handle the day-to-day management of your rental property. You have properties to let, rents to collect, tenant complaints to respond to and a whole host of property management issues to deal with. So you need to determine whether you have what it takes to manage your own buy-to-let property or whether you should employ a managing agent.

A great advantage to building wealth through property is the ability to use other people’s money – both for the initial purchase of the rental property and for the ongoing expenses. Although the availability of buy-to-let mortgages has suffered since the downturn, more lenders are re-entering this market, so choice is increasing all the time. You will need to raise a deposit and then borrow the rest of the money from a mortgage lender.

The deposit required for a buy-to-let mortgage tends to be higher than that needed for a residential mortgage, and is significantly higher since the downturn. Expect to pay at least 25 to 30 per cent of the purchase price for the best rates, although some lenders request as little as 15 per cent.

The ability to control significant property assets with only a relatively modest cash investment is one of the best reasons to invest in bricks and mortar. For example, you may have purchased a £100,000 buy-to-let property with a £20,000 cash deposit and a mortgage for the remaining £80,000. If the property’s value doubles in the next decade and you sell it for £200,000, you will have turned your £20,000 cash investment into a £100,000 profit. This is an example of capital appreciation, where you are able to earn a return not only on your cash investment but also on the entire value of the property.

Rental property also offers you the opportunity to pay off your mortgage using your tenant’s money. If you’ve been prudent in purchasing a well-located rental property in a stable area, you’ll have enough income to pay the interest on your mortgage, as well as all the expenses, maintenance and insurance.

Over time, your property should appreciate in value while your tenant is essentially paying all your expenses, including the interest on your mortgage.

Your lender and tenant aren’t the only ones who can help you with the purchase of your rental investment property. Even the government is willing to offer its money to help your cash flow and encourage more people to become landlords. In calculating your income tax obligations each year, the government allows buy-to-let landlords to offset their rental income against interest payments on their mortgage and certain expenses. For example, you can claim 10 per cent of the annual rent for wear and tear on fixtures and fittings in furnished properties.

Over time, rental income generally outstrips operating expenses. And after your tenants have finished paying your mortgage for you, you’ll suddenly find that you have a positive cash flow – in other words, you’re making a profit.

One of the first steps in determining whether to completely self-manage your rental property or delegate some or all of the duties to other people is to analyse your own skills and experience. Many very successful property owners find that they’re better suited to deal-making, so they leave the day-to-day management for someone else. This decision is a personal one, but you can make it more easily by thinking about some of the specifics of managing property. Property management requires basic skills, including marketing, accounting and people skills. You don’t need a university degree or a lot of experience to get started, and you’re sure to pick up all kinds of ideas on how to do things better along the way.

If you’re impatient or easily manipulated, you aren’t suited to being a property manager. Conveying a professional demeanour to your tenants is important. You want them to see you as someone who will take responsibility for the condition of the property. You must also insist that tenants live up to their part of the deal, pay their rent regularly and refrain from causing unreasonable damage to your property.

Good management leads to good financial results. Having tenants who pay on time, stay for several years and treat the property and their neighbours with respect is the key to profitable property management. But, like most things, it’s easier said than done. One of the greatest deterrents to financial independence through investing in rental property is the fear of management and dealing with tenants.

If you choose the wrong tenant or fail to address certain maintenance issues, your buy-to-let investment may turn into a costly nightmare. By doing your homework in advance, you can reduce those beginners’ mistakes. Experience is a great teacher – if you can afford the lessons. If you already own your own home, then you already have some basic knowledge about the ins and outs of owning and maintaining property. The question then becomes how to translate that knowledge into managing rental property.

As a landlord, you may choose to handle many responsibilities while delegating some of them to others. Look at your own set of skills to determine which items you should delegate. A contractor may be able to handle the maintenance of your rental property and garden more efficiently and effectively than you can.

The skills you need to successfully manage your own rental properties are different from the skills you need to handle your own property maintenance. Most buy-to-let landlords find that using trusted and reasonably priced contractors can be a valuable option in the long run.

Ultimately, you can delegate all the management activities to a professional managing agent. But hiring a managing agent doesn’t mean you’re off the hook. Depending on the arrangement you have with your agent, you may still oversee the big picture. Most agents need and seek the input of the property owner before they start so that they can develop a property management plan that meets the owner’s investment goals.

Keep in mind that no one else will ever manage your rental property like you will. After all, you’re more motivated than anyone else to watch out for your buy-to-let investment interests. Only you will work through the night painting your property for the new tenant moving in the next day. And who else would spend his annual leave looking through the local newspaper classifieds for creative ad ideas?

You may find that a managing agent can run the property more competently than you can. Many buy-to-let landlords possess the necessary skills and personality to efficiently and effectively manage their rental properties, but they have other skills or interests that are more financially rewarding or enjoyable. Hiring professionals and supervising them is often the best possible option.

Considering property management? Hone your people skills first

Real estate is a great source of income, whether you’re looking for steady, supplemental retirement income or a secure financial future. Most residential rental property owners want to become financially independent, and real estate is a proven investment strategy for achieving that goal. But after you sign your name on the dotted line and officially enter the world of rental property ownership, you face some tough decisions.

One of the very first concerns is who handles the day-to-day management of your rental property. You have units to lease, rents to collect, tenant complaints to respond to, and a whole host of property management issues to deal with. So you need to determine whether you have what it takes to manage your own rental property or whether you should hire and oversee a professional property management firm.

Owning investment real estate and managing rental units are two separate functions, and although nearly everyone can invest in real estate, managing it takes time, special skills, and the right personality. The importance of relationships with people cannot be neglected because property management is really people management? There are advantages of owning rental property and you should assess whether you have what it takes to manage your own property.

Some rental property owners find themselves managing their own properties without even knowing what management requires. Managing the physical aspects of your properties (the buildings) and keeping track of your income and expenses are fairly straightforward tasks. However, many rental property owners’ most difficult lesson is the management of people.

Rental management requires you to deal with many more people than you may think. In addition to your tenants, you interact with rental prospects, contractors, suppliers, neighbours, and government employees. People, not the property, create most rental management problems. An unpredictable aspect always exists in any relationship with people. As with most businesses, the ability to work with people is one of the most important skills in being a successful property manager. If you enjoy interacting with people and are adept at working with them, you’re off to a good start toward becoming a prosperous property manager.